#VforVersion(s): alteration of foreign language text in a transformative constrained comics exercise

#VforVersion(s); alteration of imposed comics pages in foreign language -to the participants- (German edition of British creators Alan Moore and David Lloyd‘s V for Vendetta, and original edition of French cartoonist Lewis Trondheim‘s Psychanalyse) by partial deletion with white-out liquid of textual elements -such as sentences, words, letters or letter parts- to form a new text in English language which would be consistent with the unaltered pictorial sequence.

V02 copy
Fig 1. A. – Tier from the 1988 American color collected edition of V for Vendetta by DC Comics/Vertigo (original text). B. – Tier from the 2003 German edition of V for Vendetta (V wie Vendetta) by Speed Comics, with black and white pages as serialized in the 1982 original British edition. C. – Same tier of the German edition but with partial alteration (elements of the text are whited out) by Thai student Mon to form English words and sentences. D. – Same tier as before but with Mon’s selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Credits: V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (art) with colors by Steve Whitaker, Siobhan Doods and David Lloyd.

1. Introduction

April 2018. The 62 students of the Creative Writing for Printed Matter course (sections 10 and 11; “Graphic Writing”) at the International Program (BA) in Communication Management (Faculty of Communication Arts, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok , Thailand) were provided with a series of imposed comics pages excerpted from the 2003 German edition of V for Vendetta (1 to 3 pages depending on section), of the 1996 edition of Lewis Trondheim‘s Psychanalyse (2 consecutive pages in French language), and of the American edition of the ongoing manga series Sunny by Japanese cartoonist Taiyō Matsumoto (2 consecutive pages).

“Ajarn [teacher], where do you find all the ideas you torture us with every week?”

Student Gam during the in-class assignment. Answer: Oupus series, OuBapo FB page, and my tortuous mind.

Winsor McCay Melissa Eddings Mancuso.jpg
A remarkable example of white-out text alteration by Melissa Eddings Mancuso for Matt Madden’s online course about constraints for The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In a comic strip from the series Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (launched in 1904) by Silas (aka Winsor McCay), Melissa “looked for names of body parts in the original dialogue and then simply whited out the other letters,” providing us with instant poetry.

Under a “transformative constraint (which alter existing works)” students -in teams of 2 to 5 participants- were asked to do a partial alteration of the written texts, by erasing/covering with white-out liquid some textual element in order to form new sentences which would be consistent with the unaltered pictorial sequence. Additionally, students had to compose English (words and) sentences by respecting the order of appearance of the selected letters (or groups of letters). The most painstaking -if not painful- aspect of the exercise was related to the pages in German and French languages, two foreign languages that participating Thai and exchange students do not speak. If text alteration constraints aren’t new in Literature or Comics Art (see Lettrism, Tom Phillips, blackout poetry, cut-up techniqueTNT en Amérique by Jochen Gerner [Fig 2], OuBaPo), the use of texts written in a language not spoken by the participant(s) seems to me less usual (as far as I know). The inability to understand the content of the foreign text and the constraint to propose an altered text in a mastered language (here English) are indeed quite a radical restrictions.

Text 04.jpg
Students Pat and Nymph whiting out fragments of text from imposed pages of Taiyō Matsumoto’s Sunny and Alan Moore and David Lloyd’s V for Vendetta to create new narratives.

Even if German, French and English languages share the same Roman script (with sometimes additional letters) and if they share numerous cognates (or words with a common etymological origin) as neighboring Indo-European languages, these cognates have taken different forms (such as “colleague” in English, “collègue” in French and “Kollege” in German). Unable to use cognates (or false cognates or false friends) unless sharing identical spellings, participants are thus forced to compose English words (and sentences) with smallest units of writings like graphemes or syllables (or digraphs or larger groups of successive letters). In the first illustration (Fig 1), student Mon was forced to the radical alteration of the German sentence “Den Zorn, der Feuer vom Himmel regnen liess.“(Fig 1B; That Wrath which did rain fire from the Heavens) to compose the English clause “No lie” (Fig 1 C, D). Participants also came to appreciate (sigh) the different ratios of vowels and consonants, as well as the different frequencies of letters and syllables, in German, French and English languages… Students noted the low frequency of the vowel ⟨o⟩ in German (2.594%) compared to French (5.796%) and English (7.507%). Consequently, the newly formed English sentences tended to be quite short. Using V’s theatrical tirades (and Alan Moore’s verbose writing) was truly convenient in this regard. Let’s note here that the high frequency of the vowel ⟨e⟩ and ⟨d⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨t⟩) in French language will be put to good use by students Por and Jean in their hilarious story “DOT” altering pages of Lewis Trondheim’s Psychanalyse (see Fig 5). Accidentally and to the delight of the French speakers, the two students ended their narrative on an English-French false friend word (and within the purest Lewis Trondheim tradition). Quite a revealing slip of the pen, would have said Freud and Lacan.

Text 07
Students Belle, Fame and Prim whiting out fragments of text from imposed pages of Lewis Trondheim’s Psychanalyse, Taiyō Matsumoto’s Sunny and Alan Moore and David Lloyd’s V for Vendetta to create new narratives.

The two main objectives of this exercise under radical restriction were: first, to prevent the participants from relying to much on familiar words and clauses that could be used without much alteration; second: to ensure that the altered text would be a complete creation with a new set of meanings, not influenced by the original content of the written text (as its meaning isn’t understood by the participants who don’t speak the language in which it is written) but mostly by their own interpretation of the visual sequences they are imposed with. The accompanying visual sequence is an additional productive constraint which led to the selection of possible themes and story-lines. The alteration of the comics pages excerpted from Lewis Trondheim’s Psychanalyse -a proto-OuBaPian comics itself using the constraint of iconic iteration applied to only two different panels (see below)- was in this respect less productive; the minimal visual “context” complicated the selection of a theme or concept (within the allocated time). However, it led to the brilliant “DOT” story by students Por and Jean (see Fig 5). The challenge was, as I said, painstaking -if not painful at times (sorry, kiddos!)- but the resulting pages were worth the effort, filled with comics poetry -if not Poetic Justice- and concert tickets for AC/DC (see Fig 20)…

Additional comments on the constraints:

  • The choice of V for Vendetta pages was made for several reasons: first, as a nod to the Master Class held two years ago during this course by V for Vendetta‘s co-creator and artist David Lloyd; second, the pleasure to enjoy his starck chiaroscuro technique with masterful use of negative spaces, third; to make the use of Alan Moore’s verbose script in the process of extended deletion of text; fourth, because the graphic novel V for Vendetta is sadly as relevant now than it was then, moreover in current Thai context.
  • Time limit for the in-class assignment was 3 hours for section 10’s teams (with all three V for Vendetta pages to be altered) and 2 hours for section 11’s teams (with only one V for Vendetta page to be altered).
  • As mentioned earlier, many letters are not as frequent in German or in French as in English. To alleviate their suffering, students were allowed to tamper with some letterforms but only by reduction (deletion/erasing). The leg of ⟨K⟩ could be white out to form a ⟨Y⟩; same goes for ⟨R⟩ turned into a ⟨P⟩ (or even a ⟨D⟩). The diagonal stroke of ⟨Z⟩ was turned in a typographical slash (to form the slash in AC/DC). ⟨E⟩ could become ⟨I⟩ or ⟨L⟩ or ⟨F⟩; ⟨N⟩ turned into ⟨V⟩; or “NV” into ⟨W⟩ with erasure of the first stroke and some stretch of closure. Digraphs could be transformed into punctuation marks, such as “TR” into an ellipsis (“…”).
TNT en Amérique
Fig 2. Left: page from Tintin en Amérique (Tintin in America) by Hergé. Right: radical reduction (with only fragments of the original text remaining) of the Tintin page by Jochen Gerner for TNT en Amérique“.

“The main interest for me of the comic strip is the infinite possible links between text and image : a system of representation continually confronting , in a kind of alchemy, text and picture . This is the field I endeavour to explore on my own or with OuBaPo (Ouvroir de Bande dessinée Potentielle).
The idea ‘TNT en Amérique’ sprang from these remarks with OuBaPo, from exercises, experiments. I try to find new reading perspectives. I dismantle a given material to make something else of it.” Jochen Gerner (source).

  • The use of logograms was also allowed. With ⟨N’⟩ for “and”, ⟨C⟩ for “see”, ⟨U⟩ for “you”, ⟨R⟩ for “are”, etc. Usage of slang was permitted too. The slang shortnening “Da” for “the” was accepted as well as “De” for “the” as it remained consistent with the accent of a German character (see Fig 3: A.B. Frost‘s comics, #VforVomans!).
  • Lewis Trondheim’s handwriting in Psychanalyse tended to complicate the browsing of the text to find usable graphemes and words. However, some ambiguous handwritten letterforms were put at good use with some ⟨O⟩ used as ⟨D⟩ (or conversely), ⟨U⟩ as ⟨V⟩, or ⟨L⟩ as ⟨C⟩.
  • WARNING: GRAPHIC LANGUAGE [sic]. We do apologize for the use of graphic language in the resulting pages, but the high frequency of the letters ⟨F⟩, ⟨U⟩, ⟨K⟩, ⟨C⟩ or ⟨B⟩, ⟨I⟩, ⟨T⟩, ⟨H⟩ in German language led to the formation of some English swear words; that’s explanation I’ve decided to provide anyway… And yes, “underwear” was spelled “underware” (see Fig 22), because it’s how I pronounce it with my French accent, I guess… #PoeticLicense #PardonMyFrench #Sic
AB Frost 1
Fig 3. #VforVomans! American cartoonist A. B. Frost’s first comic: a German attempts to pronounce English-language “th” phoneme. “De man, dis horse, dose vomans!” In: Harper’s News Monthly, December 1879.

2. Results for Psychanalyse

Note on Psychanalyse. In the pages of his minicomic series ACCI H3319 self-published between 1988 and 1990, then-debuting French cartoonist Lewis Trondheim produced comic strips and single-page comics narratives relying only on the repetition of a photocopied single panel or a highly limited set of different panels. For instance, in the series of strips collected under the title Psychanalyse [Psychoanalysis] (by Le Lézard Noir, and later by L’Association), each comics page is built only with 4 different panels -but duplicated and arranged following the constraint of “iconic iteration”- presenting, in close-up, the minimalist depiction of a patient discussing with his psychiatrist (kept off-panel). Our transformative constrained exercise is thus applied to comics pages built themselves on proto-OuBaPian productive constraints.

Psy 00
Fig 4. CLICK ON THE PIC TO ENLARGE. Two imposed consecutive pages (in French language) of Lewis Trondheim’s Psychanalyse.
Psy Jean Por Ping
Fig 5. CLICK ON THE PIC TO ENLARGE. Same pages of Lewis Trondheim’s Psychanalyse but with partial alteration (elements of the text are whited out) by Thai students Por and Jean to form English words and sentences. Their “DOT” comics, accidentally and to the delight of the French speakers, ends on an English-French false friend word (and within the purest Lewis Trondheim tradition). “Bite” usually defines the “use the teeth to cut into something” in English, but can be a (vulgar) synonym of “penis” in French language. Quite a revealing slip of the pen, would say Freud and Lacan.
Psy ERIN.jpg
Fig 6. CLICK ON THE PIC TO ENLARGE. Same pages of Lewis Trondheim’s Psychanalyse but with partial alteration (elements of the text are whited out) by Thai students Erin, Misha, PingPing, Tanya and PunPun to form English words and sentences.

3. Results for V for Vendetta (excerpt 1)

V01
Fig 7. Page from the 1988 American color collected edition of V for Vendetta by DC Comics/Vertigo (original text). V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (art) with colors by Steve Whitaker, Siobhan Doods and David Lloyd. Compilation ©2005 DC Comics.
V00
Fig 8. Same page but from the 2003 German collected edition of V for Vendetta (V wie Vendetta) by Speed Comics, with black and white pages as serialized in the 1982 original British edition. V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V Mon 01
Fig 9. Same page of the German edition of V for Vendetta but with partial alteration (elements of the text are whited out) by Thai student Mon (and his teammates Tap, Ik, Golf and X) to form English words and sentences.
V MON DEF
Fig 10. Same altered V for Vendetta page from the German edition but with Mon’s selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V NYMPH DEF
Fig 11. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai student Nymph (and her teammate Pat). With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V VICKY DEF
Fig 12. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai student Vicky (with exchange student Marin). With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V TONG DEF
Fig 13. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai students Tong, French Fries, Grace and Pim. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V NOINAE DEF
Fig 14. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai students Noinae, Paan and Boss. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.

NOTE: more resulting altered pages of this first excerpt are displayed at the end of this post.


4. Results for V for Vendetta (excerpt 2)

V11
Fig 15. Page from the 1988 American color collected edition of V for Vendetta by DC Comics/Vertigo (original text). V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (art) with colors by Steve Whitaker, Siobhan Doods and David Lloyd. Compilation ©2005 DC Comics.
V10
Fig 16. Same page but from the 2003 German collected edition of V for Vendetta (V wie Vendetta) by Speed Comics, with black and white pages as serialized in the 1982 original British edition. V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V2 NYMPH DEF
fig 18. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai student Nymph (and her teammate Pat). With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V2 POON DEF
Fig 19. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai students Poon (P), Poon (K) and Win. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V2 FRENCH FRIES DEF
Fig 20. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai student French Fries (and her teammates Tong, Grace and Pim). With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.

“[V trying to get tickets for] an AC/DC concert: believable. Convincing scenario is essential in any storytelling…”

David Lloyd, V for Vendetta co-creator and artist, commenting on the previous page altered by student French Fries.

V2 MON DEF
Fig 21. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai student Mon (and his teammates Tap, Ik, Golf and X). With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V2 NOINAE DEF
Fig 22. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai students Noinae, Paan and Boss. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.

 

5. Results for V for Vendetta (excerpt 3)

V12
Fig 23. Page from the 1988 American color collected edition of V for Vendetta by DC Comics/Vertigo (original text). V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (art) with colors by Steve Whitaker, Siobhan Doods and David Lloyd. Compilation ©2005 DC Comics.
V13 .jpg
Fig 24. Same page but from the 2003 German collected edition of V for Vendetta (V wie Vendetta) by Speed Comics, with black and white pages as serialized in the 1982 original British edition. V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V3 DEF
Fig 25. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai students Poon (P), Poon (K) and Win. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.

 

V3 MON DEF.jpg
Fig 26. Same V for Vendetta page from the German edition, altered by Thai student Mon (and his teammates Tap, Ik, Golf and X). With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.

6. Results for Sunny

Sun 01
Fig 27. Two successive pages excerpted from the manga series Sunny (volume 2) by Taiyō Matsumoto. ©2013 Matsumoto/Viz Media
Sun 05 POON
Fig 28. Same Sunny pages, with text alteration by Thai students Poon (P), Poon (K) and Win. Based onSunny (volume 2) by Taiyō Matsumoto. ©2013 Matsumoto/Viz Media
Sun 03 FAME
Fig 29. Same Sunny pages, with text alteration by Thai students Fame, Belle, Lukkaew and Prim. Based on Sunny (volume 2) by Taiyō Matsumoto. ©2013 Matsumoto/Viz Media
Sun 02 EERNG
Fig 30. Same Sunny pages, with text alteration by Thai students Misha, Erin, PingPing, Tanya and PunPun. Based on Sunny (volume 2) by Taiyō Matsumoto. ©2013 Matsumoto/Viz Media
Sun 04 GAM
Fig 31. Same Sunny pages, with text alteration by Thai students Gam, Mint (Si), Tip and Golf. Based on Sunny (volume 2) by Taiyō Matsumoto. ©2013 Matsumoto/Viz Media

“When Por told me her concept, I said: ‘Por, this is an idea to get us a F’.”

Student Jean about the following altered narrative; a bold move indeed…

Sun 04 POR
Fig 32. Same Sunny pages (here starting with left page), with (bold) text alteration by Thai students Por and Jean. Based on Sunny (volume 2) by Taiyō Matsumoto. ©2013 Matsumoto/Viz Media

7. More altered pages (“V”)

V ART 00 DEF
Fig 33. V for Vendetta page from the German edition (see original above), altered by Thai students Art, Mark, Junior and Book. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V ERIN DEF
Fig 34. V for Vendetta page from the German edition (see original above), altered by Thai students Erin, Misha, PunPun, Earn, Tanya and PingPing. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V GAM DEF
Fig 35. V for Vendetta page from the German edition (see original above), altered by Thai students Gam, Mint (Si), Tip and Golf. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.
V PRIM DEF.jpg
Fig 36. V for Vendetta page from the German edition (see original above), altered by Thai students Lukkaew, Prim, Fame and Belle. With selected letters and words reassembled for ease of reading. Based on V for Vendetta, co-created by Alan Moore (script) and David Lloyd (artist), DC Comics/Vertigo.

“I’m gonna die. I’m gonna die. This is too complicated, Ajarn [teacher]. I’m gonna die.”

Student Noinae during the in-class assignment.

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“Marsupilami and the Black Panther” tribute comics by CommDe students

On the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of Friendship between Belgium and Thailand, and to explore the ability of comics to tackle social and political issues with much effectiveness and immediacy, 8 students at the International Program in Communication Design (CommDe, Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand) were asked to create 2-page comics starring the Marsupilami -an imaginary animal created by Belgian cartoonist André Franquin (for Belgian publishing house Dupuis in 1952)- and addressing the recent story of a construction company mogul charged with six poaching-related crimes (including the killing of a black Indochinese leopard/panther) in a Thai Wildlife Sanctuary. High-resolution pages are displayed at the end of this post, after an introduction to the historical context and the guest-lecture on André Franquin.

Marsu vivi 2
Poster of an angry Marsupilami for the “Geneva League Against Vivisection”. By André Franquin (1970s).

1. Historical context

radio_04-9291f
Left: cover of The Secret Chronicles of Thungyai (1973). Right: illustration of a “gaur lying dead under the Thai flag” by Prayoon Chanyawongse in The Secret Chronicles of Thungyai (1973).

The Secret Chronicles of Thungyai [Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary] (in Thai: บันทึกลับจากทุ่งใหญ่) is a journal published in 1973 by a group of students against elephant hunting (and other animal poaching) in Thailand in the aftermath of the crash of a military helicopter in the Thung Yai forest revealing an illegal hunting party of senior military officers, businessmen, family members, and a filmstar. The ‘zine’ documented “the ecological value of the area as well as the incident” (The Nation, 2018), and was accompanied by satirical illustrations from various influential cartoonists (with an introduction, and two illustrations, by the “King of Thai Cartoon” Prayoon Chanyawongse; see figure above). 200,000 copies of the student journal were sold in 2 weeks (Eawsakul, 2015), fuelling nationwide public outrage. “In a time of great political unrest the incident became a focus for the prevailing discontent with the military rule” and “a rallying cry for the pro-democracy movement” (Seub/Stewart-Cox 1990:34), triggering public protest and demonstrations. “The protests were suppressed on October 14, with scores of killed, followed by a great number of students fleeing to the forest to join communist groups” (The Nation, 2018). The bloody crackdown ultimately led to the fall of the Thanom-Prapas regime. “The area finally was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1974 under a new democratic government” (Buergin, 2001).

44 years later (on February 5, 2018) in the same Wildlife Sanctuary, construction company mogul Premchai Karnasuta -the 63-year-old president of Italian-Thai Development- and three other men were charged with six poaching-related crimes after they were caught with “two rifles, a double-barrelled shotgun, various bullets, the body of a Kalij pheasant, a muntiacini deer carcass, a skinned and salted black leopard and a black panther skull”. (Thaitrakulpanich, Khaosod English, 2018a). “Investigators examining Premchai’s camp site found cooking equipment they believe the rotund CEO used to consume the animal. The black leopard, commonly called a black panther in Asia and considered a vulnerable species, was killed by gunfire” (Thaitrakulpanich, Khaosod English, 2018b). Mr Premchai and other suspects still deny the charges against them, which include illegal hunting and possessing firearms in a sanctuary.” A ranger and his coworkers have told police that the powerful construction magnate they arrested on suspicion of poaching a rare black panther tried to bribe them” (Thaitrakulpanich, Khaosod English, 2018c). “The case has sparked a fierce outcry from environmental groups, celebrities and the public in general” (Bangkok Post, 2018). “As people following the case have shown dissatisfaction with the slow pace of the investigation, many have expressed their feelings regarding the case, and the hunting of endangered big cats in general, in many ways.” A campaign calling for the prosecution of a construction tycoon over “his alleged killing of a black leopard and other protected animals has expanded, with people expressing their grief and anger in essays, poems, paintings and, in the latest development, street art” (Chimprabha, The Nation, 2018). It was just about time to address the issue in #ArtOfThePanther comics form…

(Note: sources at the end of this post).

“The first mural apparently was the work of a Facebook user known as ‘Headache Stencil’, who painted a picture of a black leopard’s head accompanied by a symbol of a mute button on a wall on Sukhumvit Road. The symbolism was described as urging the public not to remain silent regarding the case” (Marisa Chimprabha, The Nation).

Lecture 01

2. “From Harvey Kurtzman to André Franquin” guest lecture

On Wedneday February 7, I had the pleasure to be invited to hold a guest lecture for ajarn Oat Montien’s Visual Narrative course at the International Program in Communication Design (CommDe, Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University). My topic was the evolution of Comics Art from American cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman (1924-1993), with complete analyses of his classic short comics BIG ‘IF’! (Frontline Combat #5, March 1952) and 3-DIMENSIONS! (art by Wally Wood, MAD #12, June 1954), to Belgian cartoonist André Franquin‘s (1924-1997) creations such as Gaston Lagaffe and the Marsupilami, and Les Idées Noires (Die Laughing, soon in English by Fantagraphics).

The lecture also included an analysis of the comics masterpiece Master Race by (Al Feldstein &) Bernie Krigstein (Impact #1, EC Comics, April 1955), and a presentation of the seminal role of French comics writer René Goscinny (The Adventures of Asterix) and Belgian cartoonist Jijé (figurehead of the Marcinelle School, author of seminal semi-realistic comics series Jerry Spring and mentor of André Franquin, Smurfs‘creator Peyo, or Jean Giraud/Moebius) in the development of humour, realism, and more adult content in Franco-Belgian comics (influenced partly by American cartoonists such as Harvey Kurtzman and Milton Caniff).

Jijé Hem Vejakorn
Both unfairly lacking international recognition, Belgian comics creator Jijé (Joseph Gillain, 1914-1980) and Thai cartoonist Hem Vejakorn (เหม เวชกร, 1904-1969) were probably the most influential comics artists in their respective countries in the 1950s. Is it in the Franco-Belgian or the Thai comics fields, they introduced a seminal and groundbreaking semi-realistic drawing style, adapted the lives of spiritual and historical figures (Jesus/Emmanuel or Baden Powell for Jijé and King Razadarit or Buddha for Hem Vejakorn), influenced and taught the following generation of comics and animation masters (Morris, André Franquin, Will or Jean Giraud/Mœbius for Jijé or Payut Ngaokrachang and others for Hem Vejakorn)… among other similarities. “The Horseman and The Mahout” (or “Khwanchang” in Thailand), another pending project…

Belgian cartoonist Hergé, creator of the Adventures of Tintin, stated: “Franquin is a great artist. Next to him, I’m only a mediocre pen-pusher”. Fantagraphics’ Kim Thompson agreed with Tintin’s creator, writing that “in terms of ultra-classic greatness, Hergé has that abstract line but Franquin has something else. He created the most complete, the most alive, the most absolute cartooniness in comics history” (source: The Comics Journal).

On 31 January 1952, the first appearance of the Marsupilami in the adventure of Spirou et les Héritiers (Spirou and the Heirs) in the weekly Spirou magazine marked a generation of readers. The myth did not need decades to settle permanently (MarsuPro). The original Marsupilami was found from the jungle of Palombia, a fictitious South American country, by adventurous journalists Spirou and Fantasio and their squirrel Spip. The marsupial was taken to Belgium, where he was shortly kept in a zoo (Comic Vine). The Marsupilami will later accompany Spirou and Fantasio in many adventures, before returning to Palombia and have adventures of its own. The Spirou et Fantasio album Le nid des Marsupilamis (1956) is mostly concerned with female reporter Seccotine‘s documentary-within-the-comic about the life of a family of Marsupilamis still living in the wild in Palombia. Marsupilamis have a long, strong, flexible, prehensile tail, used for almost any task. They are able to use their tail as a weapon, by tightening the end into a fist and the remainder of the tail into a spring-like spiral for maximal force (see figure above). Marsupilamis must regularly defend themselves against poacher Bring M. Backalive and his associates…

For those interested, comic books of Spirou and Fantasio (with the Marsupilami) and Marsupilami adventures are available in English from Cinebook.


 3. Presenting 1940s-1970s issues of Spirou magazine

After the lecture, CommDe students had the opportunity to flip through a collection of 1940s-1970s classic and rare issues of the Franco-Belgian Spirou magazine (with Spirou/Marsupilami pages by André Franquin, Jerry Spring pages by Jijé, Johan and Peewit pages by Smurfs creator Peyo, etc.), and issues of the Spirou magazine mythic supplement Le Trombone Illustré. I would like to thank warmly Philippe Capart, owner of the bookstore La Crypte Tonique in Brussels, who helped me to select and acquire the issues of this invaluable collection used for my comics courses in Thailand.

MM01
CommDe students flipping through 1940s-1970s issues of the Spirou magazine (with some Spirou/Marsupilami stories, Jijé’s Jerry Pring pages, and Le Trombone Illustré supplement).

Students were given one week to develop the layouts of their Marsupilami and the Black Panther two-page comics. During the following lesson, ajarn Oat Montien -with the assistance of yours truly- gave comment and advice on the comics layouts (see figures below).

Marsupilami
Work-in-progress page of “Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Entryh (FB: Entryh) (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis). Final version near the end of this post.
Marsupilami
Work-in-progress page of “Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Entryh (FB: Entryh) (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis). Final version near the end of this post.

4. “Marsupilami and the Black Panther” tribute comics

One week after presenting their layouts, the 8 students of the Visual Narrative courses submitted the final version of their comics! Enjoy!

Marsupilami Darnis 1
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Darnis (FB: Especialist) (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
Marsupilami Darnis 2bis
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Darnis (FB: Especialist) (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).

Zam 01
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Zam (FB: Angus) (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis). Note: the present story confers to the Marsupilami the ability to “force through the dimensional barrier into our world” like Popeye’s Eugene the Jeep, the supernatural animal that André Franquin loved as a kid. See figure above.
Zam 02
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Zam (FB: Angus) (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis). Note: the present story confers to the Marsupilami the ability to “force through the dimensional barrier into our world” like Popeye’s Eugene the Jeep, the supernatural animal that André Franquin loved as a kid. See figure above.

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“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Korean student Seung Yeon (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
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“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Korean student Seung Yeon (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).

comic
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Beam (double spread). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis). Note: in the actual events, the rangers didn’t take the bribe.
comic
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Beam (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
comic
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Beam (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis). Note: in the actual events, the rangers didn’t take the bribe.
Marsu Pear 01
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Pear (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
Marsu Pear 02
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Pear (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
Jao 01
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Jao (page 1/2). Printed on multiple layers of tracing papers, with appropriation of art by Batem (from “Marsupilami: The Marsupilami’s Tail” and “Marsupilami: Bamboo Baby Blues”, Franquin/Batem/Greg, Cinebook, 2017). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
Jao 02
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Jao (page 2/2). Printed on multiple layers of tracing papers, with appropriation of art by Batem (from “Marsupilami: The Marsupilami’s Tail” and “Marsupilami: Bamboo Baby Blues”, Franquin/Batem/Greg, Cinebook, 2017). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
PROUD Marsu-01
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Proud (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
PROUD Marsu-02
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Proud (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
Marsupilami
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Entryh (FB: Entryh) (page 1/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).
Marsupilami
“Marsupilami and the Black Leopard” tribute comics by Thai student Entryh (FB: Entryh) (page 2/2). Based on the Marsupilami character created by André Franquin (©Marsu/Dupuis).

Marsu vivisection 3
Original artwork of an angry Marsupilami for a poster of the “Geneva League Against Vivisection”. By André Franquin (1970s).

Sources

Bangkok Post (2018, March 7). Black leopard soup confirmed in poaching case. Bangkok Post.

Buergin, R. (2001). Contested Heritages: Disputes on People, Forests, and a World Heritage Site in Globalizing Thailand, SEFUT Working Paper No. 9, University of Freiburg, p.5.

Chimprabha, M. (2018, March 8). Art breathes life into black leopard campaign – despite repeated attempts at suppression. The Nation.

Eawsakul, T. (2015), Cartoon Thai Tai Laew (catalogue expo, “การ์ตูนไทยตายแล้ว”, “Is Thai Cartoon Dead?”). Bangkok: PUBAT, The Publishers and Booksellers Association of Thailand, n.p.

Seub N., Stewart-Cox, B. (1990). Nomination of the Thung Yai – Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary to be a U.N.E.S.C.O. World Heritage Site. Bangkok: Royal Forest Department.

Thaitrakulpanich, A. (2018a, Feb 6). Italian-Thai President Charged with Poaching Wild Animals. Khaosod English.

Thaitrakulpanich, A. (2018b, Feb 8). Rangers: Premchai ate the Leopard in a Soup. Khaosod English.

Thaitrakulpanich, A. (2018c, Feb 8). Forest Ranger: Poacher Premchai Offered Bribe. Khaosod English.

The Nation (2018, Feb 7). Hunting arrests recall events leading to 1973 uprising crisis. The Nation.

 

#BiggerQuestions constrained comics exercise; weaving scattered wordless panels into a graphic narrative.

#BiggerQuestions: in-class creative assignment (Intro Comm course developed by the Faculty of Communication Arts; Interpersonal Communication chapter); weaving 7 scattered wordless panels (taken from Anders Nilsen‘s Big Questions) into a 2-page graphic narrative.

BLURB!

“Great exercise!” Matt Madden (February 9, 2018), cartoonist and teacher best known for his book 99 Ways to Tell a Story: Exercises in Style (Penguin), as well as a member of OuBaPo (Workshop for Potential Comics), and later a French knight in the Order of Arts and Letters.

“More good stuff from [Bangkok], thanks for sharing!” Nick Sousanis (February 9, 2018), assistant professor of Humanities & Liberal Studies at San Francisco State University. He received his doctorate in education at Teachers College, Columbia University in 2014, where he wrote and drew his dissertation entirely in comic book form. Titled Unflattening, it argues for the importance of visual thinking in teaching and learning, and was published by Harvard University Press in 2015.

January 2018. Fifty (1st year) Thai students at the International Program in Communication Design (CommDe, Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University) received 2 pages displaying 7 scattered panels (with erased text) taken from various pages of the graphic novel Big Questions by American cartoonist Anders Nilsen. Within 90 minutes, they had to produce additional panels (if necessary) -and add dialogues- in order to bridge the imposed panels and weave a cohesive and convincing graphic narrative. Following brief comments provided on their comprehensive layouts, students finalized the artwork at home. See below for 20+ of their #BiggerQuestions constrained comics.

Inspired by on a constrained comics exercise used at Pierre Feuille Ciseaux international comics residency-lab.

BQ 01 02 ref
Pages from Anders Nilsen‘s Big Questions (Drawn & Quarterly, 2011).
BQ 01 02
The 2 imposed pages -with scattered panels and blanked-out dialogues- taken from Anders Nilsen‘s Big Questions (Drawn & Quarterly, 2011).

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CommDe student bridging the gaps between Anders Nilsen‘s panels.


Click on the 2-pagers below for larger size.

01 PLYE
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student PLYE
YOSHIYUKI 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student YOSHIYUKI
BYRD 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student BYRD
02 PT
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student PT
SASINAN 01 02 def
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student SASINAN (PING)
CHICHI 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student CHICHI
OOM 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student OOM
AOM P 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student AOM (P.)
TAT 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student TAT
PHURICH 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student PHURICH
SHARON 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student SHARON
BASK 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student BASK
EVE 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student EVE
NENE 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student NENE
AOM T 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student AOM (T.)
FAHSAI 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student FAHSAI
LUKPEAR 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student LUKPEAR
SUNNY 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student SUNNY
PLOY 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student PLOY
MIM 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student MIM
KARIN 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student KARIN
MICK 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student MICK
PEACHY 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student PEACHY
KRIS 01 02
“Bigger Questions” constrained comics by (1st year) CommDe student KRIS

“Comics” Field Trip and Lectures at the National University of Singapore (Dec. 2017)

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It was an honor and a pleasure to visit the prestigious National University of Singapore  with khun Cue and 15 junior students in the International Program of Communication Management (Faculty of Communication Arts, Chulalongkorn University), and to give a short lecture on the development of Thai Comics during the first half of the 20th century. Our warm thanks to our host Associate Professor Dr. Ian Gordon, Head of the Department of History (NUS), and to Associate Professor Dr. Titima Suthiwan, Director of the Centre for Language Studies (NUS). We also want to thank Singaporean comics scholar Lim Cheng Tju for his presentation on “Consumption of Manga and Anime in Singapore”! Glad we were able to share perspectives on South-East Asian Comics, Manga and… Superman (as Dr. Ian Gordon is the author of Superman: The Persistence of an American Icon)!

This faculty field trip also gave me the opportunity to prepare our CommArts students for next semester’s Creative/Graphic Writing for Printed Matter course! Comics Shopping Day in Singapore!

Selection of Thai Comics Art for the “Mangasia” International Exhibition

Mangasia

Thai Comics (comic books & rare original artworks) are on display at the Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. Curated by Paul Gravett and a team of over twenty advisors, and developed by The Barbican Centre, the 5-year world-touring exhibition presents the largest ever selection of original artworks from Asian comics. For the first time at an international level, Thai Comics are well represented; original artworks from Thai master cartoonists p’Tawee Witsanukorn (and classic 5-baht ghost comic books of Krasue Sao, 1968), p’Raj Lersroung (Singh Dam), p’Padung “Aoh” Kraisri (Noo-Hin), and p’Suttichart Sarapaiwanich (Joe the Sea-Cret Agent); comic books by p’Hem Vejakorn (Ngo Paa), p’Sawas Jutharop (Phra Apai Manee), p’Pakdee “Tai” Santaweesuk (PangPond); issues of the famous KaiHuaRoh magazine; rare issues of “one-baht comics”; as well as various video clips (Noo-Hin: The Movie, Noo-Hin animated clip, Joe the Sea-Cret Agent animated clip). My heartfelt thanks to Paul, the Barbican Center, and all the Thai publishers and artists involved in this meaningful project. Special thanks to Chulalongkorn University students Birdme, Suttiarpa and Kaikaew for your invaluable assistance; I could not have fulfilled my role of “advisor on Thai Comics” without your help! Aj. Nicolas Verstappen

Mangasia Krasue
Rare original artwork & classic 5-baht ghost comic books of Krasue Sao (1968) by Thai master cartoonists p’Tawee Witsanukorn (ทวี วิษณุกร). Mangasia exhibition (Rome, Italy).
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“From left to right: Thai cartoonist p’Tawee Witsanukorn’s Krasue Sao original artwork, Azisa Noor‘s Kalasandhi, the Krasue Sao collection, four Thai one-baht horror/folklore comics, a page of artwork from
Al Sanchez for the Filipino comic Maling Akala, five-baht comics of Krasue Sao #1 and lastly Daijiro Morohoshi’s Mud Men“. Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. Picture credit: Paolo Darra.
Mangasia Krasue 2
First issue of the classic 5-baht ghost comic book series Krasue Sao (1968) by Thai master cartoonists p’Tawee Witsanukorn on display at the Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. Picture credit: Hashimoto Izumi.
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“From top to bottom: Eldo Yoshimizu‘s Ryuko artworks, and Thai cartoonist Raj Lersroung’s Singh Dam artworks (commission for Somboon Hormtientong‘s exhibition).” Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. Photo credit: Paolo Darra.
Mangasia Raj
Two original pages of the classic adventure comics series Singh Dam (“สิงห์ดำ”, 1960s and 2013) by Thai master cartoonist p’Raj Lersroung (ราช เลอสรวง) on display at the Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. Picture credit: @diegotheghostt.
Joe NooHin Mangasia
Original page of Joe the Sea-Cret Agent (the first Thai alternative comics, launched in 1998) by cartoonist p’Suttichart Sarapaiwanich on display (next to an original Noo-Hin cover art by p’Padung “Aoh” Kraisri) at the Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. ©Suttichart Sarapaiwanich. Picture credit (detail): Palazzo delle Esposizioni.
Mangasia noo
Original Noo-Hin cover art by p’Padung “Aoh” Kraisri, published by ขายหัวเราะ (KaiHuaRoh magazine, Banluesarn). Mangasia exhibition (Rome, Italy). Picture credit: Daruma View.
Mangasia Noo 2
Clip of Noo-Hin: The Movie (top right). Mangasia exhibition (Rome, Italy). Screenshot from a video by Daruma View.
Joe 01
Original page of Joe the Sea-Cret Agent (the first Thai alternative comics, launched in 1998) by cartoonist p’Suttichart Sarapaiwanich on display at the Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. ©Suttichart Sarapaiwanich Picture credit: Nicolas Verstappen
image008
“From left to right: Jim Fernandez artwork for Casa Negra, Thai cartoonist Sawas Jutharop’s adaptation of Phra AphaiManee, Thai one-baht sleep rape comic, and Indonesian Neraka’ hell comic.” Mangasia: Wonderlands of Asian Comics exhibition, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. Picture credit: Paolo Darra.

#UltraVioletChallenge constrained comics exercise; turning an abstract comics into a figurative one.

#UltraVioletChallenge: “Making Sense of Signs (and Fragments)” in-class creative assignment (Intro Comm course developed by the Faculty of Communication Arts; Semiotics chapter); create a figurative comics based on an imposed abstract comics (duration: 90′). Based on a constrained comics exercise used at Pierre Feuille Ciseaux international comics residency-lab.

BLURB!

“Brilliant – thanks for sharing!” Nick Sousanis (January 16, 2018; commenting the page by Fern, Lukpearr, Oom & Bank), assistant professor of Humanities & Liberal Studies at San Francisco State University. He received his doctorate in education at Teachers College, Columbia University in 2014, where he wrote and drew his dissertation entirely in comic book form. Titled Unflattening, it argues for the importance of visual thinking in teaching and learning, and was published by Harvard University Press in 2015.

Imposed abstract comics page #UltraVioletChallenge
Imposed abstract comics page #UltraVioletChallenge

BELOW: #UltraVioletChallenge final page by Fern, Lukpearr, Oom & Bank, fresh.wo.men students at the International Program in Communication Design (CommDe), Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University.

Absract 01 Fern Lukpear Oom Bank
#UltraVioletChallenge final page by Fern, Lukpearr, Oom & Bank, fresh.wo.men students at CommDe Chulalongkorn University.

BELOW: #UltraVioletChallenge final page by Thai cartoonist Supachai Jack Jirakoup

UltraViolet Supachai
#UltraVioletChallenge final page by Thai cartoonist Supachai Jack Jirakoup

“When Manga, Franco-Belgian and American Comics Collide; Or the Genesis of Thai Alternative Comics”; a lecture at Gakushuin University, Tokyo (Dec. 2016).

During our 5-day field trip in Tokyo with coordinator P’Pum and 17 students of the Faculty of Communication Arts (International Program, Chulalongkorn University), we were welcomed by the prestigious Gakushuin University (Tokyo, Japan) to hold a lecture on the History of Thai Comics.

Suttichart

The lecture at Gakushuin University (Tokyo) was titled “When Manga, Franco-Belgian and American Comics Collide; Or the Genesis of Thai Alternative Comics.” It focused on presenting why I consider that the composite style of Thai pioneering alternative cartoonist Suttichart Sarapaiwanich on the series “Joe the Sea-Cret agent” is concurrently at the crossroads of American, Japanese and Franco-Belgian comics traditions and yet a remarkable artistic expression of ‘Thainess’ (and of the globalized and eclectic modern Thai way-of-life in the aftermath of the Tom Yum Goong crisis).

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Following Professor Natsume Fusanosuke-sensei to a beautiful building of the prestigious Gakushuin University, Tokyo.
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“Konban-wa. Gakushuin Daigaku no minasama, Fusanosuke Natsume-sensei, Shiina Yukari-san, soshite Kensuke Noda-san, konkai no event o kaisai site kudasari. Watashi, Pum-san to Thai no gakusei nittote, totemo kouei na koto desu. Arigato gozaimasu”. My heartfelt thanks again to Gakushuin University for the warm welcome, to Natsume-sensei for the invitation, to Yukari-san for translating my messy sentences, and to Yukari-san & Kensuke-san for the organization! It’s been a wonderful evening!
And Arigato gozaimasu Watanabe Kanako-san for the text in Japanese! ありがとうございました! Photo by P’Pum.
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Presenting the work of highly influential Thai cartoonist Eakasit Thairaat. Photo by Note.
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So tired… Can’t understand Natsume-sensei questions anymore… Sumimasen!!! Photo by Note.
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Delicious buffet organized by Gakushuin University after the lecture for all our CommArts students and attending audience. And honor, again, to be invited, to meet and to discuss with Natsume-sensei! ありがとうございました! KANPAÏ! Photo by P’Pum.
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ありがとうございました! KANPAÏ!
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Deeply honored to meet and discuss with Ono Kosei-sensei, a leading authority in Manga, Comics and Film criticism! ありがとうございました